The original city walls of Avignon were razed after a successful
siege by Louis XIII and the Pope's armies in 1226. New fortifications were
subsequently built without the Church's approval, and those walls were also torn
Today's ramparts date back to the mid-1300s, when they were
built over a 10-year period to protect the city against highwaymen. The walls
were expanded and modified over the centuries until France's Monuments
Historiques began restoring them in the 1860s. Today they completely surround
Avignon's city center, just as they did in the Middle Ages.